This is the blog for my 40-week Physical Science class at George Washington High School for the 2016-17 school year.

6-15-17: This shall be the last day of the blog. Students who come to class shall still continue to engage in activities such as films, demonstrations, games, experiments, breakdown and setup of the classroom, and relaxation. Grades are in. Keep in touch. Enjoy the summer. It was a good year - Mr. Applebaum

6-14-17: We continued with technical, historical, political and social discussions related to events and topics presented in the film, "The Imitation Games" and continued watching the film, pausing for those discussions. We got to 57.06 when a record player was shown on screen. I stopped the film there and discussed that technology. I showed and demonstrated a record player in the classroom. We compared it to an encryption devise.

6-13-17: We continued with technical, historical, political and social discussions related to events and topics presented in the film, "The Imitation Games" and continued watching the film, pausing for those discussions. We got to 34:14.

6-12-17: We continued with discussions about encryption, the life and death of Alan Turing, and the background of the WWII German enigma machine We continued watching "The Imitation Game", pausing for discussions about technical, historical, political and social aspects of the events presented. We got to 14:39.

6-9-17: Students who missed final exams, took makeup exams. After a discussion about encryption, the life and death of Alan Turing, and the background of the WWII German enigma machine We began watching "The Imitation Game", pausing for discussions about technical, historical, political and social aspects of the events presented.

6-8-17: We completed "Thank you for Smoking" discussing political, historical, and social aspects of the film. We watched the old Flintstone commercial of Fred and Barney smoking cigarettes. We discussed suicide prevention and the district concerning the Netflix series "Thirteen Reasons Why". We discussed options for end of year activities.

6-7-17: We continued with the lessons from yesterday up to the conclusion of Nick Nailor's congressional testimony.

6-6-17: We discussed political, social, historical, and technical aspects of the information presented in the continuation of "Thank you for Smoking", the video started 5/26/17. Students had the opportunity to make up any missing term 4 work (all missing term work is due Friday).

6-5-17: Students took their final exam. Students who missed it can take the make-up on Friday. Missing work was posted.

6-2-17: Students were instructed on how to prepare the final exam on Monday (assemble notes and key terms). The final is open notes, closed book. We examined a water still with two heaters wired in series. We compared this to the circuits we created yesterday and I explained the equations known as Ohm's law and the Power law (ways of calculating electrical properties. We created and analogy of Volts to Force, Current to flow, and Resistance to friction. Students received credit toward grade for completing the lab worksheet distributed and reviewed in class today.

6-1-17: Students began to work through the Parallel and Series lightbulb circuit lab. We spent most of the period testing old batteries and becoming familiar with the equipment. A lab sheet will be distributed tomorrow.

5-31-17: Students completed the 3-circuits lab (bulb, buzzer, and fan) and created circuit diagrams using standard symbols for credit toward grade. We also discussed parallel and series lighting circuits.

5-30-17: We examined magnetic fields via the text and demonstration. I passed around disassembled loudspeakers. Students received credit for completing CRWS 17.1 #1&3.

5-26-17: Have day and move-up day (attendance is low). We strategized a study method for the final (prepare a package of notes (key terms & reference sheets). We began watching "Thank you for Smoking" to 25:00.

5-25-17: We continued discussions of electricity and magnetism. Students received the Reference pack (CRWS) for chapters 16 & 17. We reviewed CRWS 16.1, #1, 3, and 4. We discussed electric and magnetic fields and the creation and use of electromagnets. Students saw an electromagnet, a Morse code clicker, and an open electric motor.

5-24-17: I checked key terms and we began discussion on electricity and magnetism. We saw demonstration involving electrostatics and the tribolelectric effect. I began playing Paul Hewitt's video titled "Electrostatics".

5-23-17: I demonstrated an discussed an electronic ignition module and tied that into the electricity an magnetism course topic and the need to reduce CO2 emissions. Grades were posted and we discussed the final exam.

5-22-17: We discussed missing work for the term and I described and passed around a sample engines, generator, and electric motor to supplement the unit on electricity and magnetism.

5-19-17: I began an introduction to electricity and magnetism (chapters 16 and 17).

5-18-17: We began a summary of chapters 14 and 15. Key terms are due for chapters 16 and 17 after keystones (Wednesday).

5-17-17: We had a short class due to Keystone testing. I went over work due from last week and the survey added to the website Saturday. Students also had the opportunity to review trade literature from the aviation and space industry and necropsy guides from the meat industry.

5-16-17: No class due to election day.

5-15-17: We had a short class due to Keystone testing. I went over work due from last week and the survey added to the website Saturday.

5-13-17 (On a Saturday!) Take the short survey using your [ID#] user account for extra credit and a sweet treat at

5-12-17: Students studied an illustration of the Electromagnetic radiation, "light", spectrum. We discussed the visible colors and the discovery of other longer and short wavelengths of light. Students also studied the doppler effect and saw a demonstration and several videos about the doppler effect on sound waves.

5-11-17: I attended an all-day professional development on the topic of "writing across the curriculum" where my group discussed some of the work we did this year and where my teaching (and your learning!!) might head in the future. Remember, you become better at writing by writing more. The same goes for reading and physical exercise. Today students were asked to write five multiple choice questions from the each chapter review "understanding concepts" (pages 338, 368, and 410) in the following format: Chapter #, Page, Problem#, Letter code for the correct answer, and the full problem written out. For example: "Chapter 10, P 338, #1 B, If you jog for 1 hr and travel 10 km, 10 km/hr describes your average speed." Students will have 15 responses, 5 from each chapter review when this assignment is completed.

5-10-17: Students observed various demonstrations about the behavior of light and sound. We used tuning forks to demonstrated beats, springs to demonstrated waves characteristics and particle motion, lenses to demonstrate refraction, and DVD with a laser to demonstrated diffraction.

5-9-17: We began a review of CRWS 14.1.

5-8-17: I checked key terms for chapters 14 & 15: For the exam on chapters 10-12, students are to write five multiple choice questions from the each chapter review "understanding concepts" (pages 338, 368, and 410) in the following format: Chapter #, Page, Problem#, Letter code for the correct answer, and the full problem written out. For example: "Chapter 10, P 338, #1 B, If you jog for 1 hr and travel 10 km, 10 km/hr describes your average speed." Students will be able to work this tomorrow during class [Note: This assignment was shifted to Thursday, 5/11]. Students will have 15 responses, 5 from each chapter review when this assignment is completed in class tomorrow.

5-5-17: Closing out our unit on work power and machines, I asked students to consider 10 multiple choice questions from the each chapter review "understanding concepts" (pages 338, 368, and 410) to be used as an exam for this unit. I also handed out the sheets covering waves, light and sound (chapters 14 and 15) - Key terms for these chapters are due on Monday. We examined the website based on Henry T. Brown's 1868 publication as a way of exploring the application of simple machines in everyday use. We also watched several university videos from the search "conservation of angular momentum", to scientifically explain the fun from the fidget spinner.

5-4-17: Students received credit toward grade for completion of the mechanical advantage calculation sheet and the types of levers work sheet.

5-3-17: We reviewed CRWS 12.2 #1-2 and the sheets titled "Simple Machines". Students received credit toward grade if that work was complete by the end of class.

5-2-17: We completed a table of types of machines, discussing mechanical advantage equations, input forces and distances.

5-1-17: We discussed the units of Force, Work, Energy, and Power. I began a Powerpoint on Simple Machines. Students were required to solve CRWS 12.1 #1-3 which we discussed in class.

4-28-17: With a new optical DVD drive, I was able to finish the Vector's and Projectiles video by Paul Hewitt. Students received credit toward grade for displaying completed sections of CRWS chapter 10 and chapter 11. I distributed a pack for chapter 12 which we scanned and discussed in an introductory summary overview.

4-27-17: I was unable to get the DVD playing . We reviewed the worksheets for chapters 10 and 11 which will be checked for grade tomorrow. We also watched some youtubes on Newton's three laws of motion.

4-26-17: We began watching Paul Hewitt's video on Vectors and Gravity.. Students should complete CRWS 11.3.

4-25-17: Students were asked to solve CRWS 11.2 #4. In reviewing this problem we went over the units of displacement, velocity, acceleration, and force. We compared various motion graphs displacement vs. Time, Velocity vs. time, and Acceleration vs. Time. We discussed the term "Jerk" as it applies to changes in acceleration.

4-24-17: We reviewed Friday's work.

4-21-17: I was out for my son's white coat ceremony at Johns Hopkins. It was a short period due to report card conferences. Students were given a motion graph and asked to submit a written response for credit toward grade.

4-20-17: Students were asked to solve problems on CRWS for Ch 10 and 11. We had an introduction to motion graphs in preparation for tomorrows assignment. Transpasses were distributed during 3rd period and after school. Since I won't be here tomorrow, they will be given to Ms. Snyder in the main office for distribution after noon today and tomorrow.

4-19-17: Students were required to submit a 10-minute "free writing" on examples of Newton's laws of motion including illustrations. We also watched a video explaining the laws and use of the equations defined by the laws of motion.

4-18-17: Students were asked to write Newton's three laws of motion in their notes and received credit toward grade. We discussed these laws in everyday situations. Students received the concept review pack for chapter 11. I checked key term definitions covering chapters 10, 11, and 12 as credit toward for grade.

4-17-17: We began a new unit on motion, forces, work, energy and machines. For HW, students are to write the key term definitions for chapters 10-12. I handed out the CRWS for chapter 10 and we began a discussion on motion and Newton's three laws of motion (covered in chapter 11). We spoke about gravitational projectile motion and applied this to the hunter/monkey problem , Newton's hypothesis about a cannonball that never falls, and the space elevator.

4-7-17: I was out for a wedding. Students received an article about Madame Curie and are required to submit responses to prompts about the article as credit toward grade.

4-6-17: We continued discussions from yesterday and talked of the Cern atomic collider.

4-5-17: Students were asked to complete the CRWS pack for chapter 20 and "Do-Now" the reading titled "Red Shift, Blue Shift" then respond to the prompts. We examined several video's regarding "Scale of the Universe" and "Don't Stay in School". I add, "After you are ready to apply your education; but never forget that as long as you live, you are a lifetime learner."

4-4-17: Students were asked to review CRWS 20.2 #2 and 5. We spoke about the Milky way galaxy, the Hubble deep field photo, red shift/blueshift and the collision with Andromeda.

4-3-17: I checked key terms. Students obtained CRWS pack for Ch 20. We reviewed CRWS 20.1 #1 & 7. For HW students were to complete CRWS 20.1 however this will be checked on Wednesday along with other work we do Tuesday.

3-31-17: Students worked in groups to solve P656 #1-18 and submitted their answers for grade. We discussed #3 as a check to see if everyone was on task. Key terms for Chapter 20 are due Monday.

3-30-17: Students were asked to read and respond to the prompts in the chapter 19 pack titled "Deep Space 1". We reviewed this in class and discussed the comets and meteors using the Leonid meteor showers and Halley's comet as examples (search for other photos from "Astronomy Picture of the Day" website).

3-29-17: Students were asked to read and respond to the prompts in the chapter 19 pack titled "Egyptian Calendars". We reviewed this in class and continued the video on the outer planets up to 20:10. We discussed dual star systems and globular clusters.

3-28-17: We watched a short video from the Weather Channel titled "The Goldilocks Zone" about earth's positions in the solar system. At the time of this writing that video is not on-line. Students who missed it can read: and summarize the article in a 1 to 2 page writing assignment for credit toward grade. Following the video, students were required to submit for grade a five minutes free writing on the prompt, "What factors lead us to believe we are living in a Goldilocks Zone?" We began a discussion of "the outer planets" and started a video of the same title. Students received a short answer worksheet for that video. I checked key terms for chapter 19 and awarded credit toward grade for it completion. We reviewed CRWS 19.3 #1-3.

3-27-17: We continued a discussion of the solar system beginning with eclipses, comets, and asteroids. We discussed CRWS 19.1 #3-5 and 19.2 #1 a-i. We spoke about the 1994 collision of comet Shoemaker-Levi with Jupiter and how Jupiter protects the Earth by helping to clear large objects from the solar system. We also discussed how the moon stabilizes the Earth and how the tides it produces helps support life on Earth. Students saw photos of tardigrades, a potential life form capable of survival in outer space. I did not check the key terms for chapter 19 but will do so tomorrow.

3-24-17: Students formed groups to create a mnemonic for the planets in solar system. We watched the A Star Size Comparison Revised (Part 2). video, distinguished the terrestrial planets from the gas giants, and learned why Pluto has be reclassified as a dwarf planet.

3-23-17: We continued our discussion of the solar system and universe, introducing the concept of retrograde motion (how the planets were discovered). We visited Astronomy Picture of the Day website and a few of the other links on reference tab #115. Students were asked to work on CRWS 19.1, #1-3.

3-22-17: Students took a 5 question quiz on climate change based on the lessons of the past 8 days. Post quiz, students were encouraged to complete the discussion questions and key terms for chapter 19. We began a conversation about planets and the solar system. Students were given CRWS for chapter 19.

3-21-17: We completed the video. Students are to write the final Do-Now prompt H: How do the economy and environment conflict when it comes to climate change? Describe three things you can do to lower your carbon footprint. The do-now prompts will count as a half exam grade. The video questions as 25 points of classwork. There will be a quiz tomorrow before we head into Chapter 19 and 20. Key terms for chapter 19 are due Monday.

3-20-17: Students were to answer G: Describe three global challenges that threaten the future of humans on earth. We discussed challenges that included climate change, pollution, reduced bio diversity, population growth, We continued the "An Inconvenient Truth" to 1:16.

3-17-17: Students were to answer F: What is a moulin, how does it form, and what does it indicate? We discussed this and continued the video.

3-16-17: Students were to answer E - "Describe the ocean conveyor." We reviewed ocean currents both on the surface and the ocean floor as a mechanism for distributing heat throughout the world. We continued the video through a description of the melting of polar ice caps, the formation of the Hudson river valley, and events occurring in Greenland and the Ross ice shelf in Antarctica.

3-15-17: Students were to answer D - "Describe the correlation between long term global temperature and long term atmospheric CO2 content. We continued the video through a description of the Ocean Converyor. We spoke about Ben Franklin's survey of ocean currents following his observations on sailing times back and forth between London and New York.

3-14-17: Snow day - No school.

3-13-17: Students were to answer C - "Describe Figure 24 on page 794. This graph was discussed in the film "An Inconvenient Truth" which we continued. We also discussed the creation of time zones, daylight savings, and the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

3-10-17: I checked key terms for Chapter 23 as credit toward grade. We continued discussion related to the film "An Inconvenient Truth". Students were required to write "Do-Now" B - on the video reference sheet: "Create a pie chart of the gases that compose earths atmosphere." we continued the film.

3-9-17: I demonstrated a sling psychrometer used to measure humidity in the air. Students are asked to write a 5 minute description of how it works for grade. Those who missed the demonstration can see a video of it here: and submit the write up later. We continued with "An Inconvenient Truth". Students were to complete the first "Do-Now" on the movie sheet: A- "Explain the title". We discussed this to help students with their answer.

3-8-17: We completed our review of CRWS 22 - This will be checked for grade. We discussed clouds, summer and winter earth positions, cold fronts, warm fronts, tornadoes, dust devils, water spouts, and weather patterns. We began a discussion of the film "An Inconvenient Truth" as an introduction to chapter 23. I handed out a reference sheet. Key terms for Chapter 23 are due for HW by Friday.

3-7-17: We continued our discussion of the atmosphere including the carbon cycle and completing CRWS 22.1&2.

3-6-17: Shorter class periods due to half day schedule. Students were required to create a drawing showing the layers of the atmosphere, a review of last Thursday. We continued with solving problems from CRWS 22.1.

3-3-17: We began solving problems from CRWS 22.1. We discussed an overview of chapter 22 including the water and carbon cycle.

3-2-17: I checked the HW for grade. We began a discussion about the layers of the atmosphere (Ref Chapter 22 section 1).

3-1-17: We completed the rock lab and I reviewed the concluding questions. We explored images of rock core samples on line. I collected the lab sheets. Key terms for chapter 22 are due tomorrow.

2-28-17: We continued the rock lab. I checked the level of completion of the 14 sections for many students; most are near finished. So we will wrap it up tomorrow. I reviewed most of the rocks and minerals covered by the lab pointing out the relationships between several pairs (i.e. Shale and Slate, Granite and Gneiss, and Limestone and Marble). We will begin chapter 22. Key term definitions for that chapter are due Thursday.

2-27-17: We continued the rock lab and I posted grades. Most students have not yet submitted the chapter 21 essay. Please do so ASAP.

2-24-17: We began the rock lab, a comparative study of eleven rocks and three minerals. Students were given the lab sheet and we reviewed this as a group. I modeled the tests for students to do their own and record observations. Over the next several days, students shall examine and record their observation on each sample.

2-23-17: Students continued their essays and illustrations. They are due tomorrow. We reviewed Steno's Laws that allow us to create a relative timetable for geologic phenomena. We watched a few more minutes of the Alps video. We also visited Astronomy Picture of the Day which featured the newly discovered earth like planets on a nearby star.

2-22-17: Students continued their essays and illustrations. We discussed more about the Alps and watched the video to 12:00. I demonstrated a half frosted fluorescent lighting tube and discussed the behavior of fluorescence and plasmas. We talked about some of the challenges of creating a nuclear fusion reactor which must contain plasmas in magnetic fields.

2-21-17: Students were asked to pass around their rough draft of the essay exam for others to proofread. One one student had a rough draft so we spent much of the period creating the rough draft. Here is the word bank for the essays: Hawaii, Alps, Anak Krakatoa, Iceland, tectonic plate, subduction, convergent, divergent, transform, hot spot, mantle, crust, magma, volcano, earthquake, mountain, glacier, melt igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic, weathering, heat, pressure, fossils, stratigraphy, inversion, mid-atlantic ridge, and coastline. We also watched a little more of the "Alps" video and a short video from the the 1943 film "Madame Curie" about the discovery of radiation from pitchblende.

2-17-17: Here is the link for the "Alps" video Students were given credit for producing CRWS for Ch 21. It is to be completed for grade. Students are also required to write a four section essay (counts as an exam), complete with illustrations that describe how the following features of earth were formed: The Alps, Hawaii, Icenland, and Anuk Krakatoa. A word bank list will be provided. Students are to complete a rough draft this weekend.

2-16-17: Short day (and periods) due to report card conferences. We continued discussions on how the surface of planet earth was formed. Students saw an image of "All the water in the world" and we began a video about how the Alps were formed.

2-15-17: Students completed a rock cycle graphic organizer for grade then watched a video about krakatoa.

2-14-17: I was at a professional development conference. Students were provided with a written and graded assignment to be submitted to the substitute covering the class - A reading and questions about Alfred Wegener and Harry Hess.

2-13-17: Students were given credit for producing CRWS 21.2 (those who did not bring it were given another). We discussed the answers to tits questions and students are to complete it for HW. We continued the Iceland video and I read to the an account of the St. Pierre Tragedy of May 14th, 1902 from teh eruption of Mt. Pelee. We discussed the danger of Pyroclastic clouds of hot gases and volcanic ash. For extra credit, students can e-mail or hand write a one-page summary of the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajokull which downed northern atlantic air traffic for weeks.

2-10-17: We continued our discussion of tectonic plate movement. We discussed CRWS 21.2 #1-3. We discussed tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanoes and seismographs.

2-9-117: No class - Snow day.

2-8-17: We discussed geologic features on ocean bottoms and continents that support the theory plat tectonics. Students were asked to answer text plate video and question 1-3 on text page 708. We continued with the iceland video to 12:00.

2-7-17: We examined stratigraphy, pangea, and other evidence to support tectonic plate theory. We began to watch "How the Earth was Made, Iceland" and students were given a video WS.

2-6-17: Students were asked to solve CRWS 21.1 #2 and 3. We discussed this. Students saw a seismograph and a model of an earthquake.

2-3-17: Students received the reference pack for chapter 21. In checked key terms as HW due today. Students were asked to solve #1 on CRWS 21.1. WE discussed the internal structure of planet earth.

2-2-17: Students were given the opportunity to prepare for other midterms or earn extra credit by watching "Free Range Chemistry" completing the worksheet as the video played. I indicated what chapters are being covered by our earth and space science module next term, starting tomorrow (Chapters 21, 22, 19, & 20 in that order). Chapter 21 key terms are due tomorrow.

2-1-17: Students were given the opportunity to prepare for other midterms or earn extra credit by watching "Free Range Chemistry" completing the worksheet as the video played. We discussed grade recovery via Compass Learning.

1-31-17: Students were given the opportunity to prepare for other midterms or earn extra credit by watching "Free Range Chemistry" completing the worksheet as the video played. (Got up to 56:00). The link for the video is on the 1-27 blog).

1-30-17: Students were given the opportunity to take the midterm exam during 1st period today. Make up will be 1st period Thursday. Key terms for chapter 21, counting as a term 3 grade will be due Friday.

1-27-17: Students were preparing for the midterm exam on Monday while the video "Free Range Chemistry" played (up to burning carbon with O2 to collect CO2).

1-26-17: We distinguished between the historically different definitions between acids and bases as explained by Svante Arrehenius in 1884, Bronsted-Lowry in 1923, and Gilbert Lewis in 1938 (See Wikipedia for more information) . Students were told of midterm coverage and study method. Students were also shown "Compass Learning" website for grade recovery. We are finished with the chemistry module of the course. Students should prepare for the mid term by assembling and reviewing their key term lists and chapter reference packs. Post mid-term we will continue with chapter 10 (motion). Key terms for thaqt chapter will be due after the mid term.

1-25-17: We reviewed P275 and the 6 questions. We learned the equation for pH. I collected the video WS for "World of Chemistry #16 - The Proton in Chemistry" for grade.

1-24-17: Students were asked to read and respond to six questions presented in the scenario presented on text page 275. I demonstrated the reaction of calcium metal with water to form hydrogen gas and calcium hydroxide. We then watched a pH shift occur with the addition of calcium hydroxide to vinegar. We will revisit this tomorrow. We completed the video from 1-20.

1-23-17: We again explored acid base chemistry. I showed how the colors exhibited by litmus paper is reversible and related that to the disassociation of water into hydrogen and hydroxide ions. We examined the how the hydronium ion (H3O+) is a hydrogen ion that reacts, joins with, a water molecule.

1-20-17: Students were shown how an acid + base reaction is a double displacement reaction. I demonstrated an acid / base colored indicator and showed how a salt solution can be made basic by passing electricity through ii, bubbling out hydrogen gas, and leaving hydroxide ions behind. Students were provided with a 1/4 sheet of questions related to the world of chemistry video #16, "The Proton in Chemistry" We watched to video to 8:00 discussing a few key topics such as acid rain and water purification.

1-19-17: Students were introduced to acid-base chemistry. Acids and bases were defined as well as the format for an acid + base reaction. Students were provided a 20 question worksheet and asked to identify compounds as acid, base, or salt. Student were given credit for completion of this work and we reviewed the answers in class. I demonstrated the decomposition of ammonium dichromate (in small amount under camera) and we studied the reaction equation, counting the atoms in the equation and balancing it. Students were given a strip of acid base indicating paper to try on different liquids at home.

1-18-17: Students completed the common assessment.

1-17-17: The midterm exam schedule is posted on the home page. The midterm is multiple choice and covers material from the start of the course. I counts as 20% of the term 2 grade. We did not continue the common assessment but should finish it tomorrow. We did reviewed he five types of chemical reactions, their forms and examples (see pages 190-195. Students are to solve CRWS 6.2 #5 and 6 for HW.

1-13-17: Students continued the GWHS common assessment on atomic structure. Few finished so we will complete it Tuesday.

1-12-17: Students began the GWHS common assessment on atomic structure. We will continue it tomorrow.

1-11-17: We went over the format of synthesis and decomposition reactions. We looked at particle (mole) ratios in sample reactions and converted them to mass (using atomic mass) to get mass ratios. The sample reactions were the rusting of iron, the synthesis of magnesium oxide, and the decomposition of carbonic acid.

1-10-17: I demonstrated flame tests as one way to identify atoms that are present in a compound. We saw green for copper in solid form and in two different salts. We also saw red for lithium. We continued with the general form of equations for combustion and synthesis. With combustion we discussed the alkanes, a special group of hydrocarbons in the form of CxHy where y = 2x+2. We examined the formulas for the alkanes of Butane and Octane containing 4 and 8 carbon in each molecule respectively.

1-9-17: Short periods due to Keystone testing. 30 minute classes beginning at 10:45 running through 2:39. We reviewed the importance of Keystone Tests and the schedule. I also reviewed attendance policy. Students are required to attend classes during testing days just like any other school day. I asked students to use text pages 190-195 to write the general form and examples of five types of chemical reactions: Synthesis, Decomposition, Combustion, Single Displacement, and Double Displacement. We will review these tomorrow.

1-6-17: Students were asked to write answers for the following two questions, and elaboration of CRWS 6.1#5: A - In an endothermic reaction, how to the products gain energy? and B- In an exothermic reaction, where does the released energy go? I gave students credit for grade fro having these questions answered in their notes. For optional homework, students are to mix vinegar and baking soda in handheld plastic cup and observed whether the reaction gets cold (absorbs energy or endothermic) or gets hot (releases energy or exothermic). I demonstrated and discussed several reactions (i.e. lighting a match, combustion of butane, synthesis of a metallic salt by burning out a light bulb). Students were fascinated by melting the glass of a light bulb to let the oxygen inside. so that the metallic salt could be made from the filament.

1-5-17: We continued work in chapter 6 and discussed answers to CRWS 6.1 #1-4. We spoke about evidence of a chemical reaction and what defines an acid.

1-4-17: Students were given credit toward grade for having the chapter 6 paper from before the break and were asked to solve CRWS 6.1, #1. We also watched and discussed a short TED talk by Taylor Wilson.

12-23-16: We discussed and watched a video from the Cosmos series, "The Electric Boy" featuring the life of Michael Faraday who pioneered discoveries in electromagnetism that gave birth to the electric power and radio communication industries.

12-22-16: I passed out the concept review worksheet, a reference for chapter 6 (sections 1-3) and a review of chapter 5 section 3. We went over the items on the sheet covering 5.3 for review and then students completed a 12 question quiz on the same material from chapter 5. Key terms for chapter 6 are due tomorrow as homework.

12-21-16: We concluded our discussion of chemical bonds, with activities of naming and writing formulas for simple covalent molecules. There will be quiz covering names and formulas of chemicals. I demonstrated and explained two chemical reactions; potassium permanganate reacting with glycerine and aluminum reacting with copper(I) chloride. We wrote and balanced the equations for both reactions. For homework due Friday, students are to write the key term definitions for chapter 6.

12-20-16: Once I summarized what we have leaned so far about chemical bonds, students were asked to write and submit a 5-minute free-writing response to the prompt, "Compare and contrast ionic and covalent bonds. We continued with the video from 12-16 up to 18:21.

12-19-16: Students took a 20 question quiz covering chapter 4, atoms and the periodic table. We then discussed some of the answers and other similar problems in the chapter 4 text review.

12-16-16: Students received a 10 question sheet for the World of Chemistry Video, "Chemical Bonds" we started the video and got up to question number five covering the properties of ionic compounds. Students were asked to hold the sheet until the video is complete then to submit it for grade.

12-15-16: Students continued work on ionic compounds and saw demonstrations of their properties (e.g. cooked a hotdog with electricity!).

12-14-16: Students were asked to write the properties of ionic compounds. I handed out samples of salt and began a demonstration of the 5 identifying properties of ionic compounds.

12-13-16: I was out for Chemical Management training. Students received a KWL sheet in indicate their level of comfort and knowledge with the learning objectives for chapter 4 and 5. Students are to turn in these sheets as credit toward grade.

12-12-16: I again checked for completion of the ionic compound formula worksheet. We reviewed p164 #1&3. Students are to complete the worksheet with names and formulas of the ionic compounds represented on the sheet.

12-9-16: I checked the HW (very few got most of it, none were able to complete the work) then retaught writing names and formulas for ionic compounds.

12-8-16: Students received credit toward grade for having copying the Cation-Anion formula grid into their notes. We reviewed P161 #1-4. We examined how polyatomic ions are to be written into formulas. Students saw a polyatomic reference table on text p158. For HW, students are to complete both sides of the worksheet distributed yesterday covering names and formulas for binary and polyatomic ion names and formulas.

12-7-16: Students were instructed on how to name and write formulas for binary ionic compounds. They were given a worksheet to complete and we reviewed several of the problems. Students received credit toward grade for their work on this activity. We saw the reaction of magnesium and oxygen and studied in reaction equation.

12-6-16: We continued to discuss the names and formulas of ionic and covalent compounds. The class started with students seeking the solution to CRWS 5.3 #4. It became apparent that most had missed the concepts so I began to reteach. Tomorrow we will begin with names and formulas of ionic compounds, also known as salts.

12-5-16: Students were given CRWS 5.3. We reviewed items 1-3 and discussed names and formulas of chemical compounds. There will be a pop quiz on chapter 4 coming up, 20 multiple choice questions.

12-2-16: We continued distinguishing between ionic and covalent bonds. We defined the metallic bond and answered CRWS 5.3 questions 4-6.

12-1-16: We learned about some of the differences between ionic and covalent bonds as discussed in the both chemistry and physical science texts (See Chemistry text chapter 6 section; the chemistry textbook is downloadable as a .pdf file found as reference item #1). We reviewed CRWS 5.3 #1-3.

11-30-16: Students received a reference sheet for chapter 5. We reviewed how to count atoms in chemical formulas and the first three answers to questions on that sheet (Section 5.1) and discussed topics covered by the same material in the text.

11-29-16: We finished the CRWS for chapter 4 and students were given credit toward grade for having it complete. We began the World of Chemistry video #6 "The Atom" (See reference item 3). Students were given video worksheet to be completed as the video plays and to be submitted for credit toward grade.

11-28-16: We reviewed CRWS 4.4 and 4.1. Students are to keep this reference sheet in their notebook to use on the exam.

11-23-16: Shorter periods due to report card conferences. Students were asked to review CRWS 4.4 and were treated to a demonstration reaction of sodium metal in water. The reaction equation was written out and students were able to see how the sodium hydroxide product changed the pH of the solution and how hydrogen gas was formed as the water reacted. This reaction is exothermic, so we also saw how the sodium metal melted as the reaction progressed. Here is a link showing this reaction (without the pH color indicator):

11-22-16: Students worked on CRWS 4.4. We learned the mole concept and applied it to the first 2 problems.

11-21-16: We reviewed CRWS 4.3 and students received credit for grade. I posted missing work for the term and we went over scope of the assignments. I also handed out report cards and went over the times for conferences.

11-18-16: We continued studying chemical reactions equations. Students were asked to count the atoms on each side of the equations for the "Classifying reactions" worksheet from 11-16. We also used the periodic table to determine the mass of reactants and products based on the atom count and the balanced chemical reaction. We distinguished between coefficients and subscripts in the equation.

11-17-16: Students were given a biography about Alfred Nobel and were asked to respond to 5 prompts following the reading. This is to be completed for homework and to be submitted by Friday, 11/18, as credit toward grade.

11-16-16: Students were given a sheet with 17 balanced chemical equations. They were asked to classify these reactions as one of five types reviewed in class and highlighted on text pages 190-195. The completion of this activity counted as credit toward grade. This sheet will bee needed for other activities so make it part of your notebook.

11-15-16: Students were asked to create in their notes a table of five reactions types, the three yesterday plus combustion and double displacement. The table should have, type, general form and an example of a balanced chemical reaction equation.

11-14-16: I checked the HW (Key terms for chapter 5) as credit toward grade. Students were asked to write the chemical reaction for the rusting of iron to form Fe2O3. We reviewed this chemical equation and the Thermite reaction seen 11-10. We discussed ions and ionic formulas. We began to go over types of chemical reactions that included: synthesis, decomposition, and single displacement reactions.

11-10-16: Students were shown the Thermite reaction. I explained the formation of ions and ionic compounds related to this reaction. I also explained an energy curve that illustrates the release of energy from this reaction (exothermic behavior). We began watching the "World of Chemistry video #6, The Atom" and got to 7:00. Students received a video question sheet and completed answers to several questions as the video played. This video and its worksheets are available through Item #3 linked via the "References (textbook...)" tab

11-9-16: The SEPTA strike ended and term 1 is over. We reviewed assignments that transferred to term 2. Key terms for chapter 5 are due Monday. Students completed their periodic tables labeled by groups. I distributed and discussed briefly, the handout titled "Making Better Beverage Choices". For extra credit, students can submit a summary of the paper writing each of the 10 section titles on the sheet.

11-7-16: Students were asked to label the periodic table with the eleven families of elements (the text book specifies nine but we added the bottom two rows as separate families; the lanthanides and actinides). This will be checked for grade on Wednesday.

11-4-16: We finished the Bill Nye Video and I collected the worksheet. This will count as a term 2 grade. Absent students should watch the video at home and submit factual notes for each of the thirteen section titles numbering them from 1-13 (i.e. 1-Oxygen, discovered by Joseph Priestley....2 - Atomic Theory....13-Fullerenes.....).

11-3-16: We solved and reviewed CRWS 4.2 #4-6. Students learned about isotope symbols, cations, anions and a little about ionic formulas. I offered extra credit (10 pts on HW) to anyone who participates in the upcoming blood drive (i.e. gives blood).

11-2-16: We reviewed the work we did yesterday and discussed more about the structure of atoms and the layout of the periodic table. Students are to continue completing the reference sheet covering chapter 4. For a check of your knowledge, try problems 1-11 on page 136. We also discussed the rovers on Mars and watched to video "The Seven Minutes of Terror" related to landing the Rovers on Mars.

11-1-16: Students are asked to use the text to review chapter 4 and solve problems on the reference sheet distributed 10-26. We discussed P134 #2 and began watching a few of the Mark Rosengarten Chemistry Videos (See reference #23; Elemental Funkiness and Atomos, Atomos). .

10-31-16: We continued the Bill Nye video and related discussion up to electrons form chemical bonds. I checked Key terms for chapter 4 for grade.

10-28-16: We watched Bill Nye's video up to section 6, the period table of the elements.

10-27-16: While students took the unit 2, chapter 2-3 exam, I attended professional development session covering "Writing across the curriculum". My classes would be covered by a substitute.

10-26-16: We completed our review of the chapter materials for tomorrow's exam. There are 27 key term definitions for chapter 4 due Monday. I also distributed the reference sheet for the next chapter (CRWS 4.1 to 4.4).

10-25-16: We reviewed some of the chapter materials for the exam Thursday. Key terms for chapter 4 are due Monday.

10-24-16: Students saw demonstrations of Boyle's law, and Gay-Lussac's laws. We reviewed the fluids labs and students are required to submit a second mini lab report fro any one of the three gas laws by tomorrow. Students also worked on the chapter 3 reference pack. We have completed chapter 3 and will review then have an exam on Thursday. Students also took the GWHS science department's common assessment covering scientific method.

10-21-16: Student submitted the Pascal's mini lab report for grade. I demonstrated Boyle's law in similar fashion. After Charles' and Gay-Lussac's laws are demonstrated, students are to submit a mini lab report for any one of those three demo's. If you miss a demo, check out a youtube video of the same (Search "__ law demonstration"). Students were provided with a reference sheet covering chapter 3 and were asked to begin with section 3.3 then finish the rest in preparation for the exam next week (date to be determined)

10-20-16: Key terms for chapter 3 were checked. We discussed more about the mini lab report as described on the 10-18 blog. We reviewed the Pascals principle demonstration. We discussed the plasma state of matter and I demonstrated how a plasma is converted into a gas (and vice versa) using fluorescent lights. See reference item #105 for a demonstration of a half coated fluorescent tube. The first mini lab report on Pascal's principle is due tomorrow.

10-19-16: Class was cancelled today due to a last minuted modification to the bell schedule for PSAT and SAT testing. Homework due today will be due tomorrow.

10-18-16: Students saw demonstrations of Pascal's principle using pistons. We discussed hydraulic jacks and pneumatic brake systems on automobiles then solved #1 on page 84. Students are required to write and submit by Friday a mini lab report on Pascal's principle in the following format: 1 - Title, 2 - Labeled diagram of the equipment used, 3 - Described what happened (your observations), and 4 - Explain why things happened the way they did using concepts discussed in class and in the text. Students also saw a demonstration of Charles's law (the hot air balloon). Key term definitions for chapter 3 are due tomorrow. Students will be required to write an second mini-lab report on their choice of Boyles, Charles, or Gay-Lussac's laws after the three have been demonstrated.

10-17-16: We began a discussion about fluids, covered by chapter 3. Students are required to write the key terms for the chapter by Wednesday. We discussed the concept of vacuum, fluid, pressure and the atmosphere. Students saw a demonstration of a large syringe, and plunger on the wall, and the rubber sheet & stool lift. For Extra credit, watch the Antares rocket launch at 7:40 pm tonight visible in our southern skies (launched from the Virginia coast, we will see it around 90 seconds later). Take a selfie of you with the rocket trail in the background (or have someone else take the picture) then show it to me to receive the credit.

10-14-16: Yesterday's homework was collected. Students were given a "Free Writing" assignment that is to describe any textbook illustration from pages 69-128 (see assignment sheet distributed in class for detailed instructions). This is to be submitted Monday.

10-13-16: Students were given the "Pink Periodic Table" and a "Getting to the Periodic Table" question sheet. We examined question #3 finding three places within elements 1-90 on the table where atomic number increases but atomic mass decreases. We discussed the significance of this discovery and some of the the development and layout of the table. Students are to finish the Getting to know..." sheet for HW.

10-11-16: Students were asked to create a table of atomic masses for the first 18 elements by name and number. We studied the pattern and discussed the composition of the nucleus and the stability of isotopes and large atoms (>Uranium). We also watched the "New Periodic Table Song" on youtube and discussed some of the properties of element groups (stable, inert noble gases for example).

10-10-16: Students were given a paper with Friday's assignment on it. Those who completed it were asked to just staple their work to the paper and hand it in. We began a video by Bill Nye titled The Greatest Discoveries in Chemistry (The video is linked as item #27 on the reference tab on the left. A worksheet was provided that students are to complete as each of the 13 sections of the video plays. An extra credit was offered: Visit the Chemical Heritage Museum in Philadelphia (See item #68 on the reference links) and provide some proof you were there (a photo or brochure) and a paragraph describing one of the displays. We got to 5:37 into the video.

10-7-16: We had more cryogenic demonstrations, this time with liquid nitrogen. Students had a chance to breath and taste nitrogen (one breath only!). I poured it from one container to another. I froze a flower, some rubber tubing, and a rubber ball (smash!!). Students were permitted to pick up a piece of tubing from a dish of liquid nitrogen to feel it boil on their skin for a moment and see how rock hard the rubber became at low temperature. We extinguished a candle in nitrogen gas. We aso collapsed a balloon and watched it refill observing liquid oxygen in the balloon. Students are asked to write for credit toward their grade and explanation of the following two statements using the vocabulary words from the list the follows the statements. "Dry ice is solid carbon dioxide, CO2, and sublimes at -78.5 degree celsius" and "Liquid nitrogen boils at 77K (-195.8 degree celsius)." The words students are to use in their explanation (variations of the words are permitted such as boiling or boils) are: Solid, Liquid, Gas, Boiling, Sublimation, Heat, Kinetic Molecular Theory, Absolute Zero, Temperature, Fahrenheit, Frozen, Compound, Atom, Element, and Mixture.

10-6-16: We experimented with dry ice after a safety briefing: Examined dry ice sublimations (clouds of water vapor form - the air hockey puck on a table). Each student got a small piece. We examined density (sinks in a column of water). We discussed absolute zero and kinetic molecular theory. We extinguished a suspended candle in CO2 vapor (covered beaker) and compared to the gas generated from vinegar and baking soda (same). We burned Mg in air then in CO2 and compared/discussed the reaction products. We saw carbon dioxide dissolves in water and makes carbonic acid using color changing pH indicators. We liquify dry ice in cut disposable pipette held under water closed tight with a pliers (it explodes!). Some breathed and tasted CO2 by inhaling lightly from a bag and felt the urge to breath heavily if concentrated and recognized the taste as that of carbonated soda gas. We discussed uses (ice cream trucks coolers, sand blasting, camping coolers - no soggy food!). Finally, we made a 500ml water bottle bomb behind a safety shield (Step away and hold your ears!!!)

10-5-16: We reviewed the materials from Thursday's quiz. I demonstrated how to separate a mixture of sand, water, salt, and steel using magnets, filters, decanting, and distillations. We toured the lab in room 334 to see a small scale commercial water still. Students learned how to make distilled water.

9-29-16: My apologies for the lack of notice; at 2:25pm yesterday, I received an e-mail notifying me that I was selected to attend an all day professional development session covering "Writing across the curriculum" and that my classes would be covered by a substitute. Students were expected to continue using the text to work on the concept review sheet for chapter 2. A 10-minute "Exit ticket", open notes quiz covering classification of matter and energy was given.

9-28-16: We discussed classification of matter and reviewed some of CRWS 2.1. I demonstrated the flaming dollar bill explaining that a 50% water/alcohol solution burns but does not release enough heat to evaporate all the water thereby preventing the paper from burning. HW (Key term definitions for chapter 2) was checked for credit toward grade. Also, #1 from CRWS 2.1 was reviewed.

9-27-16: Students received a periodic table and were asked to locate the elements listed on the pie charts from text page 39. We discussed the format of the table. We also saw demonstrations of iodine sublimations/deposition and the dissolving of polystyrene foam in acetone. Students also saw how flammable acetone is as a matter of safety.

9-26-16: Students received the concept review pack covering chapter 2. We saw demonstrations involving the candle. We discussed chemical and physical changes and the concept of absolute zero.

9-23-16: We had an exam covering chapter 1 consisting of multiple choice, matching, short answer, and a scenario. Key terms for chapter 2 are due Wednesday next week

9-22-16: Students were provided with a chapter 1 review WS. Students were also asked to look at pages 28 and 29 to review for tomorrow's exam. At the end of class students were provided the answers to the questions in order to check their work.. Key term definitions (16) for chapter 2 will be due next week.

9-21-16: Students received a worksheet titled "Accuracy, Precision, and error" that we reviewed in class and counted toward grade. We went over how accuracy and precision are used in measurements and the reporting and interpretation of measurements.

9-20-16: We reviewed P17 #1-8 and the "Factor Unit Method".

9-19-16: Students received a reference sheet showing how to use the pneumonic (Kids have dogs... Dogs cost money" as a way of converting units in the metric system. We began the "Metric Measurement Conversions" worksheet. We also discussed conversions between the English and Metric System. Students were introduced to the Avoirdupois and Troy measurement system as an example of why the metric system was developed. As a do-now, students were asked to solve #1-8 on text page 17; however, we did not review this.

9-16-16: Students were provided with a structured note sheet (Concept Review) covering materials for chapter 1 including a review of graphs. We completed the graphing exercise posted on the board yesterday (P835) and spoke about independent and dependent variables in experiments. I also checked the key terms

9-15-16: We reviewed the homework and measured density of a few solids. Students are to have their notebook and key terms for chapter 1 tomorrow.

9-14-16: We completed and reviewed the assignment from yesterday (making a table and bar graph of densities) - Those who did not finish should complete it for homework.

9-13-16: Students were given graph paper and told to make a table of data and a bar graph of the densities for the following materials using data from Table 3 on text page 843: Water, Steel, Aluminum, Copper, Lead, Brass, and Oak (Note: The densities of Brass and Oak are not on page 843; students can use the values of 8.52 and 0.74 grams per cubic centimeter respectively). we reviewed the density equation and I introduced the English and Metric Systems of measurement. We will continue this activity. I checked and reviewed the HW and collected the "Branches of Science" worksheet distributed yesterday. We also began a discussion of temperature scales and conversion between the Fahrenheit and Celcius temperature scales.

9-12-16: For HW due Friday are the Key Term Definitions for chapter 1. Today we reviewed the branches of science and students completed a "Branches of Science" worksheet as credit toward their grade (complete for homework if not done in class). I demonstrated the "Flying Wish Paper" and we discussed density of fluids as it relates to the demonstration.

9-9-16: Shorter periods due to noon time dismissal (hot weather). We began to explore section 1 of chapter 1. Students were asked to copy Figure 3 (page 6) into their notes.

9-8-16: Today was a more normal class day because we used the full period. I did not check HW but reminded others of it. We had a loosed conversation about the nature of science. We spoke of the concept of a keystone and looked at the St. Louis Arch. For extra credit, student can submit a few sentences describing the name given to that shape of arch and what makes it so special (research it on-line). Students are to scan text pages 2 to 26.

9-7-16: First day of class. I hope you felt welcome and enthused about the subject. Students received a hard copy print of the syllabus to keep in their notebook and were assigned seats. Note: The syllabus is available0 in digital format as item #1 on the tab titled "Assignments /EC" on the left. Your homework tonight is three fold: 1) Complete the two-part prompt handed out in class, 2) Assemble a 3-ring binder notebook with a dedicated section for Physical Science to include: Key Terms, notes, and handouts, and to visit this website to read the update I entered after 3:00 pm. HERE IS THE UPDATE: (4:25 pm). Write your seat number next to your name on the syllabus sheet you received in class. Display it on your desk when I walk around to check it.